First Cairo Congress of Arab Music 1932



Muhammad al-Qubbanchi was the lead singer in the Iraqi delegation, accompanied by a chalghi group consisting of Yusuf Hugi Pataw on the santur, Salih Shummel, joza, Ezra Harun, ‘ud, Yusuf Za‘rur, qanun, Yehuda Moshi Shammash, dunbuk, and Ibrahim Salih, daff. All the instrumentalists were Baghdadi Jews, mostly illiterate and traditional men, who dressed in the old Baghdadi fashion. Nuri al-Sa‘id, the then Prime Minister, was keen to present a modern face of Iraq. He entrusted the one efendi (here meaning dressed in European fashion) among them, Ezra Harun, known as ‘Ezzouri, to dress them in the European style and to train them in appropriate conduct for such an occasion.

A funny anecdote was related by Qubbanchi: one evening, while their mentor ‘Ezzouri was out, the Iraqi musicians were visited at their hotel by an Egyptian journalist looking for an interview. He enquired about the state of musical arts in Iraq. Pataw, evidently mystified by the question, replied honestly in an archaic Baghdadi Jewish accent. "What art of the graves! We play at weddings, and people drink and start fighting, and soon knives are flying, and we (the musicians) hide in the lavatories." This anecdote comically illustrates the clash between traditional perceptions and practices and the new notion of 'art', which the Cairo Congress was celebrating.

(Sami Zubaida, "Entertainers in Baghdad, 1900-1950", in Eugene Rogan, ed.,Outside In: On the Margins of the Modern Middle East, London: IB Tauris 2002, p212-230)

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Maqam Khanabat
al-Chalghi al-Baghdadi

First Cairo Congress of Arab Music (1932)
Cairo, Egypt. 78rpm recording.


الوفد الموسيقي العراقي في مؤتمر القاهره الاول للموسيقى العربيه في مصر عام ١٩٣٢


مقام خنبات من اداء الوفد العراقي (السنطور: يوسف حوكي پتو، الكمانه البغداديه: صالح شميل شمولي، الدف الزنجاري: ابراهيم صالح، الدنبك: يهودا شماس، العود: عزوري هارون، القانون: يوسف مير زعرور الصغير) في مؤتمر القاهره الاول للموسيقى العربيه في مصر عام ١٩٣٢ بمشاركه وفود موسيقيه رسميه من جميع البلدان العربيه بالإضافه الى تركيا. وقد فاز الوفد العراقي برئاسه قارئ المقام محمد القبنجي بالمركز الاول بعد استفتاء لجنه المؤتمر من الخبراء الموسيقيين العرب و الاتراك و الاوربيين و تم تكريم الوفد من قبل الملك فؤاد الاول.

Instrumental performance of Maqam Khanabat by the Iraqi delegation to the First Cairo Congress of Arab Music (Le Congrès du Caire) in Egypt, ِ1932. The Iraqi delegation led by maqam performer Muhammad al-Qubbanchi won the first place and were awarded by King Fuad I.


Santur: Yusuf Hugi Pataw (1886-1976)
Joza: Salih Shummel Shmuli (1890-1960)
Qanun: Yusuf Meir Za‘rur al-Saghir (1901-1986)
Oud: Ezra Aharon al-‘Awwad (1903-1995)
Tabla: Yehouda Moshe Shammas (1884-1972)
Daff: Ibrahim Salih (?)
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Maqam Rast (2 parts)
Muhammad al-Qubbanchi
First Cairo Congress of Arab Music (1932)
Cairo, Egypt. 78rpm recording.
Maqam Rast by Muhammad al-Qubbanchi and members of the Iraqi delegation to the First Cairo Congress of Arab Music (Le Congrès du Caire) in Egypt, ِ1932. The poetry sung here is a takhmis by Sayyid Ja'far al-Hilli al-Najafi (1861-1898) of a poem by Muhammad Sa'id al-Habbubi (1849-1916).
مقام الرست من اداء الاستاذ محمد القبنجي مع اعضاء الفرقة الموسيقية العراقية (يوسف بتو، صالح شميل، ابراهيم صالح، يهودا شماس، يوسف زعرور الصغير، عزوري هارون العواد) في مؤتمر القاهرة الاول للموسيقى العربية في مصر عام ١٩٣٢.
الشعر تخميس للشاعر السيد جعفر الحلي النجفي (١٨٦١-١٨٩٨) لقصيدة العلاّمة السيد محمد سعيد الحبوبي (١٨٤٩-١٩١٦

يا يوسف الحسن فيك الصب قد ليما * و لو رأوك هَووا للأرض تعظيما
بمن حباك فنون الحسن تتميما * لُحْ كوكباً وامشِ غُصناً والتفتْ ريما
فإن عداك آسمُها لـم تَعْدُك السِّيمـا
شهد بثغرك لم تبرد به كبد * عقارب الصدغ في حافاته رصد
تبدي ثلاثاً لكن لم تنلك يد * وجه أغرّ و جيد زانه جيَد
و قامة تخجل الخطى تقويما
يا نارلي الرمل من نجد احبكم * وان هجرتم ففيما هجركم فيما
حرّمت وصلي كما حللت سفك دمي * صدقتُ شرعك تحليلا وتحريما



- Muqaddima, instrumental introduction in rast mode.
- Tahrir, unmeasured vocal introduction presenting the rast mode to the word "yar" (love, Turkish) (0:18), descending from the rast (C) to the 'ushayran degree, then up to the rast, dukah, segah and nawa gradually descending back to rast, then up to the kardan through the 'arabat hijaz and nawa (1:06). This version of the tahrir is called Rast Hindi.
- Instrumental piece on the joza in rast mode. (1:27)
- Two verses of the qasida in rast mode ending with a modulation on the ‘arabat hijaz degree called Negriz. (1:44)
- A piece called Mansuri (saba on G) consisting of two sung verses, followed by a return to rast. (3:27)
- A piece called Ibrahimi (bayat on G) consisting of a verse ending with the command "aman, ‘elet ya m‘awwad, aman" (Turkish and Iraqi-Arabic) (4:06)
- Jalsa, cadenza called Hijaz Shaytani (hijaz on G) to the words "ah ya leil" (Arabic, o night) with a gradual descent to C to the word "yar", ending the first half of the maqam. (5:37)

Second part:
- Dulab, instrumental interlude in sharqi rast mode and a 4/4 wahda rhythm.
- First meyana called Balaban (in rast mode) sung in high register to the words "ya dost" (Arabic-Persian, my friend) from the buzurg degree up to the sahm (0:37)
- A verse of the qasida representing the melody of the meyana ending with a descent to rast to the word "aman" (Turkish, grace). (1:01)
- Second dulab in sharqi rast mode and a 4/4 wahda rhythm. (1:47)
- Second meyana Khalili (in chahargah mode) to the words "nazenine men" (Persian, my sweet love) followed by a verse in the same mode. (2:23)
- A piece called Sharqi Rast (in sharqi rast mode) sung to the words "ya lali, ya lali, ya ya ya dayim" (Iraqi-Arabic, o eternal one). (2:55)
- Part of recording of third meyana called Madani damaged from origin.
- Musical interlude in hijaz mode. (3:14)
- A piece called Mathnawi (hijaz on G) consisting of three sung verses. (3:27)
- Taslim, conclusion of the maqam, to the word "yar", gradually descending from the ‘ajam (B-flat) degree to the rast. (5:43)
Vocals: Muhammad Abdul Razzaq al-Qubbanchi (1901-1989)
Santur: Yusuf Hugi Pataw (1886-1976)
Joza: Salih Shummel Shmuli (1890-1960)
Qanun: Yusuf Meir Za‘rur al-Saghir (1901-1986)
Oud: Ezra Aharon al-‘Awwad (1903-1995)
Tabla: Yehouda Moshe Shammas (1884-1972)
Daff: Ibrahim Salih
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Yusuf Hugi Pataw (1886-1976)
Taqsim Santur - Maqam Awj
First Cairo Congress of Arab Music (1932)
Cairo, Egypt. 78rpm recording.
Improvisation on the santur in Maqam Awj by Yusuf Hugi Pataw as part of the Iraqi delegation to the First Cairo Congress of Arab Music (Le Congrès du Caire) in 1932. Yusuf Pataw was sent as a replacement for his father usta Hugi Pataw, head of the Baghdad Chalghi ensemble at the time, who could not attend due to his old age.
تقسيم سنطور من مقام الاوج من اداء يوسف حوكي بتو (١٨٨٦-١٩٧٦) في مؤتمر القاهره الاول للموسيقى العربيه في عام ١٩٣٢
يوسف بَتَو بن حوكَي بن صالح بن رحمين ولد في محله الطاطران في بغداد سنة ١٨٨٦ و كان من مهرة العازفين على السنطور، اخذ فنه من ابيه الاسطه حوكَي بتو. و ليوسف بتو جوق للجالغي البغدادي اشتغل به مع رشيد القندرجي و يوسف حوريش و محمد القبنجي. و كان جوقه هو الذي صحب القبنجي الى مصر فعزف له في المؤتمر الموسيقي الشرقي الذي عقدته الحكومة المصرية سنة ١٩٣٢. تتلمذ على يده الحاج هاشم الرجب على آله السنطور قبل ترحيل اعضاء الجالغي اليهود من العراق في اوائل الخمسينات. توفي سنة ١٩٧٦ خارج العراق.
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Yusuf Hugi Pataw (1886-1976)
Taqsim Santur - Maqam Taher and Hadidi
First Cairo Congress of Arab Music (1932)
Cairo, Egypt. 78rpm recording.
Improvisation on the santur in Maqam Taher and Hadidi by master Yusuf Hugi Pataw as part of the Iraqi delegation to the First Cairo Congress of Arab Music (Le Congrès du Caire) in 1932. The Maqam Taher is a secondary maqam derived from the Maqam Jahargah (chahargah) while the Maqam Hadidi is derived from the Saba.
تقسيم سنطور من مقامي الطاهر و الحديدي العراقيين من اداء يوسف حوكي بتو (١٨٨٦-١٩٧٦) في مؤتمر القاهره الاول للموسيقى العربيه في عام ١٩٣٢. .
مقام الطاهر مقام عراقي اصيل يعد فرعا من مقام الجهاركَاه اما الحديدي فهو مقام عراقي مشتق من مقام الصبا
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Yusuf Hugi Pataw (1886-1976)
Taqsim Santur - Maqam Seigah and Hileilawi
First Cairo Congress of Arab Music (1932)
Cairo, Egypt. 78rpm recording.
Improvisation on the santur in Maqam Seigah (Sikah) and Hileilawi by master Yusuf Hugi Pataw as part of the Iraqi delegation to the First Cairo Congress of Arab Music (Le Congrès du Caire) in 1932.
تقسيم سنطور من مقامي السيگاه و الحليلاوي من اداء يوسف حوكي بتو (١٨٨٦-١٩٧٦) في مؤتمر القاهره الاول للموسيقى العربيه في عام ١٩٣٢. .
مقام السيگاه العراقي هو مقام اساسي نغمته هزام (حجاز على درجه النوى) اما الحليلاوي فهو مقام عراقي مركب من عده اجناس كالبيات و السيگاه و الرست
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Yusuf Hugi Pataw (1886-1976)
Taqsim Santur - Maqam 'Araybun and Urfa
First Cairo Congress of Arab Music (1932)
Cairo, Egypt. 78rpm recording.
Improvisation on the santur in Maqam ‘Araybun and Urfa by master Yusuf Hugi Pataw as part of the Iraqi delegation to the First Cairo Congress of Arab Music (Le Congrès du Caire) in 1932.
تقسيم سنطور من مقامي العريبون و الاورفه من اداء يوسف حوكي بتو (١٨٨٦-١٩٧٦) في مؤتمر القاهره الاول للموسيقى العربيه في عام ١٩٣٢. مقام العريبون العراقي هو مقام مركب يتبع جنسه الاول مقام الحجاز و يسمى عريبون عجم و الثاني يتيع البيات و يسمى عريبون عرب اما الاورفه فهو مقام عراقي فرعي مشتق من مقام الحسيني
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Taqsim Maqam Penjigah
Yusuf Meir Za‘rur Jr. (1901-1986)
First Cairo Congress of Arab Music (1932)
Cairo, Egypt. 78rpm recording.
Improvisation on the qanun in Maqam Penjigah by master Yusuf Efendi Za‘rur Jr. as part of the Iraqi delegation to the First Cairo Congress of Arab Music (Le Congrès du Caire) in 1932.
تقسيم قانون من مقام البنجگاه العراقي من اداء يوسف مير زعرور الصغير في مؤتمر القاهره الاول للموسيقى العربيه في عام ١٩٣٢.
مقام البنجگاه مقام عراقي متفرع من الرست. سلمه رست على درجه الجهاركاه و حجاز على الكردان
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Taqsim Maqam Hijaz Diwan and Khanabat
Yusuf Meir Za‘rur Jr. (1901-1986)
First Cairo Congress of Arab Music (1932)
Cairo, Egypt. 78rpm recording.
Improvisation on the qanun in Maqam Hijaz Diwan and Khanabat by master Yusuf Meir Za‘rur Jr. as part of the Iraqi delegation to the First Cairo Congress of Arab Music (Le Congrès du Caire) in 1932.
تقسيم قانون من مقامي الحجاز ديوان و الخنبات من اداء يوسف مير زعرور الصغير في مؤتمر القاهره الاول للموسيقى العربيه في عام ١٩٣٢.
مقام الحجاز ديوان مقام عراقي اساسي سلمه حجاز و يرتكز على درجه الحسيني (ديوان). مقام الخنبات من فروع النهاوند سلمه بيات و نهاوند
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Taqsim Oud in Maqam Lami
‘Azzuri Harun (Ezra Aharon)
First Cairo Congress of Arab Music (1932)
Cairo, Egypt. 78rpm recording.
Improvisation on the oud in Maqam Lami by ‘Azzuri Harun al-‘Awwad (1903-1995) as part of the Iraqi delegation to the First Cairo Congress of Arab Music (Le Congrès du Caire) in 1932.
تقسيم عود من مقام اللامي العراقي من اداء عزوري هارون العواد (١٩٠٣-١٩٩٥) في مؤتمر القاهره الاول للموسيقى العربيه في عام ١٩٣٢.
مقام اللامي سلمه لامي يستقر على درجه البوسليك (مي) و هو من وضع قارئ المقام محمد القبانچي
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Taqsim Maqam Hakimi and Dasht
‘Azzuri Harun (Ezra Aharon)
First Cairo Congress of Arab Music (1932)
Cairo, Egypt. 78rpm recording.
Improvisation on the oud in Maqam Hakimi and Dasht by ‘Azzuri Harun al-‘Awwad (1903-1995) as part of the Iraqi delegation to the First Cairo Congress of Arab Music (Le Congrès du Caire) in 1932.
تقسيم عود من مقامي الحكيمي و الدشت من اداء عزوري هارون العواد (١٩٠٣-١٩٩٥) في مؤتمر القاهره الاول للموسيقى العربيه في عام ١٩٣٢.
مقام الحكيمي مقام عراقي متفرع من السيگاه، سلمه هزام و يرافقه ايقاع اليكرك ٤/١٢. مقام الدشت مقام عراقي يتفرع من الحسيني
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Taqsim Maqam 'Ushaq
Salih Shummel Shmuli (1890-1960)
First Cairo Congress of Arab Music (1932)
Cairo, Egypt. 78rpm recording.
Improvisation on the joza in Maqam 'Ushaq by Salih Shummel Shmuli as part of the Iraqi delegation to the First Cairo Congress of Arab Music (Le Congrès du Caire) in 1932.
تقسيم على الجوزه من مقام العشاق من اداء صالح شميل شمولي في مؤتمر القاهره الاول للموسيقى العربيه في عام ١٩٣٢
صالح بن شميل بن صالح بن شمولي ولد في بغداد محله الطاطران سنه ١٨٩٠ و اخذ فن العزف على الكمان و الجوزه من نسيم بصون ، و هو عضو في جوق يوسف بتو للجالغي البغدادي. توفي خارج العراق سنه ١٩٦٠
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Iraqi Tabla Rhythms
Yahouda Moshe Shammas (1884-1972)
First Cairo Congress of Arab Music (1932)
Cairo, Egypt. 78rpm recording.
Demonstration of nine Iraqi rhythms on the tabla (dumbug or dunbug) by Yahouda Moshe Shammas as part of the Iraqi delegation to the First Cairo Congress of Arab Music (Le Congrès du Caire) in 1932.
36/4 Samah, 18/8 Ay Nawasi, 4/4 Sharqi, 12/4 Yugrug, 10/8 'Ulaylawi, 4/4 Wahda, 6/8 Hachcha, 5/8 Sha'baniyya, 8/8 Muthalath
السماح ٤/٣٦
الاينوسي ٨/١٨
الشرقي ٤/٤
اليكَركَ ٤/١٢
العليلاوي ٨/١٠
الوحده ٤/٤
الحجه ٨/٦
الشعبانيه ٨/٥
المثلث ٨/٨
يهودا بن موشي بن يامين بن شماس ولد في بغداد سنه ١٨٨٤ و هو ايقاعي على الدنبك في جوق يوسف بتو للجالغي البغدادي. اخذ اصول الايقاع من عباس بن كاظم قره جويد. توفي خارج العراق سنه ١٩٧٢
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Iraqi Daff Rhythms
Ibrahim Salih (?)
First Cairo Congress of Arab Music (1932)
Cairo, Egypt. 78rpm recording.
Demonstration of nine Iraqi rhythms on the daff (riqq or tambourine) by Ibrahim Efendi Salih as part of the Iraqi delegation to the First Cairo Congress of Arab Music (Le Congrès du Caire) in 1932.
36/4 Samah, 18/8 Ay Nawasi, 4/4 Sharqi, 12/4 Yugrug, 10/8 'Ulaylawi, 4/4 Wahda, 6/8 Hachcha, 5/8 Sha'baniyya, 8/8 Muthalath
تسعه اوزان على الدف من اداء ضابط الايقاع ابراهيم افندي صالح في مؤتمر القاهره الاول للموسيقى العربيه في عام ١٩٣٢
السماح ٤/٣٦
الاينوسي ٨/١٨
الشرقي ٤/٤
اليكَركَ ٤/١٢
العليلاوي ٨/١٠
الوحده ٤/٤
الحجه ٨/٦
الشعبانيه ٨/٥
المثلث ٨/٨
*
*
Muhammad al-Qubbanchi
Maqam Mukhalaf and Msalim wala Dhakir Heli
First Congress of Arabic Music
Cairo , Egypt 1932
مقام المخالف واغنية تراثية قديمة امسلم ولا ذاكر هلي - للاستاذ محمد القبانجي والوفد العراقي من تسجيلات مؤتمر القاهرة الاول للموسيقى العربية 1932
مالي ارى الهم وبچبدي مگيض وشاة
ومن الولف عاد بانن لي امور وشاة
مجنون گالوا علامك طول عمرك شاة
من جور دنياي راسي من المدامع صفه
يا لايمي كف لومك وشوف اشصفه
لا هج من ديرة عيشي بيها ما صفه
لا لي بها ناگة ترعى ولا لي شاة
***
(بستة)
امسلم ولا ولا * ذاكر هلي هلي
يالولد روح لا تبتلي
يا ناس لا تلوموني * يا حول الله
شفت الحلو بعيوني
سهران لا توعوني * توبة لالله
واني بغرامك مبتلي
بعيوني شفتك نوبة * يا حول الله
من حسنك صحت التوبة
خدك زبد لو روبة * يا حول الله
واني بغرامك مبتلي
جيت انشدك وانته منين * يا حول الله
تسوة العمارة الصوبين
حطلك حرز عن العين * توبة لالله
*
Maqam Panjigah
Mohammed al-Qubbanchi
First Cairo Congress of Arabic Music 1932
Egypt
من تسجيلات مؤتمر القاهرة الاول للموسيقى العربية
شعر عبد الغفار الاخرس
طهِر فؤادك بالراحات تطهيرا * ودم على نهبِك اللذات مسرورا
بادر إلى أخذ صفو العيش مبتهجاً * فما أوَد لوقت الأنس تأخيرا
فالواشي يعذلني والوجد يعذرني * والصب لا زال معذولاً ومعذورا
كأن صورته للعين إذ جليت * من فضة قدرت بالحسن تقديرا
يا أيها الرشأ المغري بناظره * قد عاد هاروت من جفنيك مسحورا
لقد نصرت على كسر القلوب به * مالي أرى طرفك المنصور مكسورا
Qanun: Yusuf Zarur
Oud: Azzuri Aharon
Santur: Yusuf Pataw
Joza: Salih Shummel
Riqq: Ibrahim Saleh
Tabla: Yehuda Shamash
Poetry by Abdul Ghaffar al-Akhrass
*
First Cairo Congress of Arabic Music 1932
Egypt
من تسجيلات مؤتمر القاهرة الاول للموسيقى العربية في مصر
1932


موال للحاج زاير الدويج

من يوم فركاك ما لذن جفوني بسنه
ياللي جبينك يفوك على البدور بسنه
بكثر اشتياكي اشتعل مني الضمير بسنه
من دون اهل الهوى سيفك عليه شهر
حتى شهرني بعرفان اهل المودة شهر
انت عليك السنة تمضي بحسبة شهر
واني عليه الشهر كل يوم منه بسنة


Qanun: Yusuf Zarur
Oud: Azzuri Aharon
Santur: Yusuf Pataw
Joza: Salih Shummel
Riqq: Ibrahim Saleh
Tabla: Yehuda Shamash
Maqam in Iraq Vol.1 & 2

The International Congress of Arabian Music in Cairo in 1932:
Mohammed Elqabbandji


The form taken in Iraq by the sawt of hidjaz is the maqam which is the most perfect and noblest form the learned music of that country can offer. The maqam is performed by one singer (the qari) and three musicians who play respectively the santur (similar to a mediaeval dulcimer i.e. psaltery struck by mallets), the djoza (spike fiddle) and the tabla or tombak (a double drum). To constitute the djalghi baghdadi of nuba ensemble another kind of drum is added: a riqq - the drumhead of which is stretched over a wooden frame -. The principal part characteristic of the maqam is a poem written in one of the sixteen varieties of classical metres either in literary Arabic or in colloquial language. In the latter case the poem is called zuhairi.

The maqam, the tradition of which has lasted in Iraq for nearly four centuries, has been transmitted orally by the Iraqi masters in an uninterrupted chain between past and present. The singer improvises melodic passages making freely use of different rhythms while passing progressively from one region of the chosen mode to another. Displaying all his virtuosity and flexibility of voice he reaches the acme of the maqam; then leaves it imperceptibly and comes to the final note of the mode after having embroidered musical phrases, all of them proofs of his talent and inventiveness.

The maqam starts with the tahrir often preceded by an instrumental introduction called badwa and composed on a well-defined rhythm; the singer accompanies the badwa passing alternately from high-pitched notes to low-pitched ones. The tahrir is made of one or more songs, the texts of which may be extended by one or two Arabic, Persian or Turkish interjections added by the singer when the texts of the songs prove too short with regard to the improvised melody. The maqam ends with the taslim or taslom which is a text set to a falling melodic passage ending with the final note of the scale of that maqam. Between the tahrir and the taslim there are a series of melodic passages of variable length which are performed alternately by the singer and the musicians and which develop in turn the different regions of the scale.

The artists who interpret maqam-s are considered to be autorities on the matter of repertoire; they know all about it and are famous for the specific way in which they interpret a given maqam. Some of them are famous for the passages they have added to certain maqam-s, others for the composing of whole maqam-s with a view of enriching the already rich repertoire.

A concert when only maqam-s are played is called a fasl. In such a fasl the maqam-s are always played in the same order and the fasl is named after the first maqam of the series. The Iraqi repertoire offers five fasl-s : bayat - hidjaz - rast - nawa and husseini. At the end of every maqam the orchestra plays a pesté which is a piece of music composed in the same mode as the maqam. This device allows the singer to rest before the beginning of the next maqam. In former times it was usual to play several fasl-s on a musical evening.

Among the masters of the maqam who have carried on its musical tradition, generation after generation, and whose names are still known nowadays, we will mention: Mulla Hassan Babudidji (1782-1840) and his pupil Ramallah Shiltag who taught a whole generation of artists, the most famous of whom were Ahmed Zaidan and Mulla Osman Almussili. Many artists of the following generation have Ahmed Zaidan to thank for their musical talent and their fame, for instance Rashid Kandardji (deceased in 1963) and Abbas Chikhali.

Among the next generation we will quote the great master Mohammed El Qabbandji who was born in 1901 and considered the greatest of his time for the register of his voice as well as for the precision of his interpretation of the traditional maqam. Endowed with a vast memory, he had memorized a great number of poems, which allowed him to sing what was fit in all circumstances. He was sent to the International Congress of Arabian Music in Cairo in 1932, as a representative of Iraqi music. Many of his interpretations were recorded on that occasion, which gives us an opportunity to hear them nowadays. We have also come across music played by Abbas Chikhali and recorded at the same period but its commercial success has been rather limited. What is recorded here is all the more valuable as it is nearly unavailable. The companies that released those masters' records do not exist any longer. The extant recordings have been taken care of miraculously by the BBC Record Library and put at our disposal since we have undertaken to save the musical heritage of the Arab World in our Anthology of Arabian Music.

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