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Glossary

A

- ʻabbūsh: a piece of bayat used in the maqamat ibrahimi, mansuri, and hadidi.
- abūdhiyya: rural form of poetry and singing from southern and central Iraq with the rhyme form a a a b. It is often performed along with sacred and profane al-maqam al-‘iraqi performances.
- adab: literature
- adhan: call to prayer from a mosque minaret
- ʻajam: ‘ajam scale on B flat.
- ʻajam ʻushayrān: ‘ajam scale on the lower b-flat. It is sung to classical Arabic poetry with no rhythmic accompaniment. Qita‘: bayat and saba.
- akhbari: Persian comic popular in Baghdad during the nineteenth to early twentieth century.
- āla (pl. ālāt): instrument.
- āla mūsiqiyya: musical instrument.
- ‘ali zubār: a piece of chahargah used in the maqam ibrahimi.
- ʻaraba (pl. ʻarabāt): half step; also a name for the levers used on the qanūn
- ʻaraybūn: consists of two maqamat (ʻaraybūn ‘ajam and ʻaraybūn ‘arab) sung in one piece. 
- ʻaraybūn ʻajam: hijaz scale on G. It is sung to classical Arabic poetry, with the music accompanied by the 12/4 yugrug rhythm. Qita‘: sa‘idi and bayat. It is usually performed with the ‘araybūn ‘arab immediately following it without pause, so it is sometimes called maqam ‘araybūn.
- ʻaraybūn ʻarab: bayat scale on G with some phrases ending with the segah on A semi-flat. It is sung to a colloquial Baghdadi mawwal, with the music accompanied by the 12/4 yugrug rhythm. Qita‘: bheirzawi, qatar, sa‘idi, segah, and ibrahimi.
- ʻarazbār: see ‘ali zubar.
- arwāḥ: bayat scale on A. It is sung to classical Arabic poetry with its music accompanied by the 4/4 wahda rhythm. Qita‘: ‘ushaysh, mukhalaf, kuyani, husayni, juburi, dasht, hijaz gharib, and tahir; also a piece of bayat used in the maqamat mansuri and sharqi dukah.
- ʻatāba: short Bedouin poem with the rhyme form a a a b and a style of singing based on it.
- awj: segah and huzam scales on B semi-flat. The finalis uses the huzam on the lower b semi-flat. It is sung to classical Arabic poetry without rhythmic accompaniment. Qita‘: sufyan, hakimi, musta‘ar, mukhalaf kirkuk, qadirbayjan, and ʻushshāq.
- awshār: segah scale on E semi-flat. It is sung to classical Arabic poetry without rhythmic accompaniment.
- ay nawasi: 18/8 rhythm formerly used in themaqamat ibrahimi and mukhalaf - āydin: chahargah on F, used in themaqamat tahir, rashdi, and mahmudi.



B

- baba tahir: see tahir.
- badwa: opening vocal passage used in certain maqamat, shorter than a tahrir
- baḥr: poem meter
- bajilānIt is sung to a colloquial Baghdadi mawwal with its music accompanied by the 10/16 jurjina rhythm.
- bakhtiyār
- bam: lowest string of the ‘ud
- baqiyya: semitone
- bashirichahargah on F and rast on C.  It is sung to a colloquial Baghdadi mawwal, with the music accompanied by the 10/16 jurjina rhythm. 
- bashraf: measured instrumental prelude to a maqam, from the Turkish peshrev; also an instrumental prelude to a waslah.
- bashro: see bashraf
- bastah: see peste
- bastanagār
- bayāt: scale is bayat on D but phrases end on G. The finalis is on D. It is sung in classical Arabic or Persian poetry without rhythmic accompaniment. Qita‘: nawa, lauk, saba, jalsa, husayni, nahuft, and ‘ajam.
- bayāt ʻajam: bayat scale, sung to classical Arabic or Persian verses with its music accompanied by the 12/4 yugrug rhythm. 
- bayāt ḥusayni
- bayāt nawa
- bayāt shuri
- Bayyāt: a Turkmen tribe in Iraq famous for its singers
- becarre: natural (e.g. mi becarre)
- bémol: pitch lowered half a tone (e.g. sol bémol)
- bheirzāwi: bayat scale on D. It is sung to a colloquial Baghdadi mawwal, with the music accompanied by the 12/4 yugrug rhythm. Qita‘: mugabal, qaryabash, juburi, quriyat, mahmudi, qatar, ‘abbush, chahargah, and maschin. Named after the town of Buhriz, northeast of Baghdad, where it is said to have originated during the nineteenth century; also a piece of bayat used in the maqamat ibrahimi and ‘araybun ‘arab.
- bintāya: vocal technique in which the singer breaks up his voice.
- buʻd (pl. abʻād): musical interval
- al-buʻd al-tanini: whole tone
- buhayrzāwi: see bheirzāwi.
- būq: horn
- busalik:
- buzuq: long-necked lute used in Syrian and Lebanese folk music 



C

- chahārgāh: chahargah scale on F. It is sung to classical Arabic poetry, with the music accompanied by the 12/4 yugrug rhythm. Qita‘: saba, tahir, and rashdi. This maqam has a very important role in ritual performances.
- chāikhāna: Baghdad teahouse
- chālghi: maqam concert; small ensemble consisting of a santur, joza, dumbuk, daff zinjari, and occasionally a naqqara.
- chālghi al-baghdādi: a typical Baghdadi ensemble used to accompany a maqam singer, consisting of three to five musicians playing traditional instruments: santur, joza (kamanja or kamana baghdadiyya), dumbuk (dunbuk or tabla), daff zinjari (riqq) and occasionally a naqqara and daff; also the name of the maqam concert itself.



D

- daff: large or small single-headed frame drum sometimes with cymbals
- daff zinjāri: single-headed frame drum (20 cm in diameter) with several pairs of cymbals, used as an accessory percussion instrument in a chalghi al-baghdadi ensemble; tambourine
- daggāga or daqqāqa (pl. daggāgāt):
- dāma: (lit. chess pieces) a bridge used to hold strings on the santur. Four strings tuned to one pitch are stretched on each bridge.
- dammām: large cylindrical double-headed drum struck with a wooden stick used in folk music.
- daraja (pl. darajat): note; tone; pitch
- darb: rhythm; measure
- darbukka: goblet drum; also see dunbuk
- dārmi (pl. dārmiyyāt): a form of popular poetry in Iraq. A verse consists of two monorhymic couplets. It is often the
- dasht: bayat scale on D with temporary rests on A and Ab before returning to the tonic. It is sung to classical Arabic poetry without rhythmic accompaniment. Qita‘: lami, hijaz gharib, and husayni.
- dasht ʻarab: bayat scale on G. It is sung to classical Arabic or Persian verses with its music accompanied by the 4/4 wahda rhythm. Composed by the maqam singer Ahmed Zaydan. 
- dasht ʻiraqsee dasht ʻarab
- dashtisee dasht
- dawr (pl. adwār): turn; also a genre of Egyptian vocal music from the late nineteenth century
- dhabdhaba: vibration.
- dhikr: invocation ritual of Sufi brotherhoods which often includes singing from the maqam al-‘iraqi repertory with rhythmic chanting and breathing movements. 
- dièse: pitch raised half a tone.
- diwān: octave of eight notes.
- duff: see daff.
- dūlāb: short instrumental prelude or interlude.
- dunbuk: clay goblet drum with a stretched fish or animal skin (nowadays made from aluminum and plastic), used as the main percussion instrument of the chalghi al-baghdadi ensemble.
- dum: low-pitched drum beat struck on the center of the drumskin.
- dumbak: see dunbuk.
- dumbuk: see dunbuk.
- durbakka: see darbukka.



F

- fann: art.
- fannān: artist; singer.
- farahfaza: nahawand scale transposed on G instead of C.
- faṣl (pl. fuṣūl): suite; cycle; chapter; maqam concert; a cycle of maqam realizations following a fixed order handed down by oral tradition. The arrangement of al-maqamat al-ʻiraqiyya into a cyclic fasl system seems to have been adopted during the nineteenth century and it functions to entertain an audience starting at the early evening until dawn. The five fusul are Rast, Bayat, Hijaz, Nawa, Husayni. - firqa (pl. firaq): band; ensemble; orchestra.
- fulklur: folklore.
- funūn jamila: fine arts.


G

- gazel:
- ghazal
- ghazal banāt:
- ghinā: singing.
- ghuṣn:
- giṣid: Bedouin form of poetry and singing.
- gufte: see qitʻa.
- gulguli: uses the mukhalaf scale on E semi-flat or A semi-flat with a longer qafla. It is sung to a colloquial Baghdadi mawwalwith the music accompanied by the 12/4 yugrug rhythm; also a piece of mukhalaf on E semi-flat used in the maqam mukhalaf.



H

- ḥadidi: saba and bayat scales on D or G. It is sung to a colloquial Baghdadi mawwal with its music accompanied by the 12/4 yugrug rhythm. Qita‘: mahmudi, ‘abbush, mugabal, ‘umar galah, qaryabash, ‘iraq, madmi, and muthaltha.
- ḥadra: climax of a dhikr ceremony
- ḥāfiz:
- ḥafla: party; concert
- haftgār:
- ḥakimi: huzam on E semi-flat or A semi-flat. It is sung to a colloquial Baghdadi mawwal with its music accompanied by the 12/4 yugrug rhythm. Qita‘: mukhalaf kirkuk, qadirbyajan, rukbani, and mukhalaf; also a piece of huzam used in the maqamat segah, awj, hijaz kar
- hamayūnhijaz scale on C. It is sung to classical Arabic poetry with no rhythmic accompaniment. Qita‘: hijaz diwan, hijaz gharib, and qazzaz. Composed and popularized as an Iraqi maqam by Muhammad al-Qubbanchi during the third decade of the twentieth century.
- ḥāna: bar.
- ḥaraka: movement.
- ḥayrān: maqam with a bayat scale commonly used in Kurdish folk music of northern Iraq. 
- hazzān: Jewish synagogue cantor.
- ḥijāz:
- ḥijāzi: see hijāz
- ḥijāz atchugh: hijaz scale on d' sung to classical Arabic or Turkish verses with its music accompanied by the 4/4 wahda rhythm; also used as meyana of the maqam hijaz diwan, sung to the words "ya leyli"
- ḥijāz diwan: hijaz on D with frequent rests on A (diwan or husayni).  It is sung to classical Arabic poetry with no rhythmic accompaniment until the meyana where the 4/4 wahda rhythm enters until the taslim. Qita‘: husayni, negriz, hijaz atchugh, shahnazqazzaz, and saba.
- ḥijāz gharib: a piece of hijaz on G used in the maqamat dasht, hweizawi, and hamayun.
ḥijaz hamayūn: see hamayūn.
- ḥijāz kār: hijaz scale on C. It is sung to a colloquial Baghdadi mawwal with no rhythmic accompaniment. Qita‘: hakimi, mukhalaf kirkuk, musta‘ar, and mukhalaf.
- ḥijāz kār kurd: kurd scale transposed on C.
- ḥijāz madani: see madani.
- ḥijāz shaytāni: hijaz scale on G, accompanied by the 4/4 wahda rhythm. 
ḥileilawi: The taslim uses the hijaz on G. It is sung to a colloquial Baghdadi mawwal with its music accompanied by the 10/16 jurjina rhythm. Qita‘: saysani, segah, qatar and mukhalaf kirkuk.
- hosa:
- ḥusayni: rast on G and bayat on A. The finalis is on the lower a. It is sung to classical Arabic verses without rhythmic accompaniment. Qita‘: juburi and muthaltha.
- huzām:
- huzzām: see huzām 
- hweizāwi: hijaz scale on D. It is sung to classical Arabic poetry with no rhythmic accompaniment. Qita‘: sa‘idi, dasht, and hijaz gharib. Composed and popularized as an Iraqi maqam by Muhammad al-Qubbanchi during the third decade of the twentieth century.




ibrāhimi: bayat scale on G. The music is accompanied by the 18/8 ay nawasi or 12/4 yugrug rhythm. It is sung to a colloquial Baghdadi mawwal. Qita‘: nari, sunbula, ‘araybun ‘ajam, tahir, ‘umar galah, quriyat, mansuri, qaryabash, ‘abbush, mahmudi, qatar, mugabal, bheirzawi, juburi, zanburi, maschin, and ‘ali zubar. One of the longest and most technically demanding maqamat; also a piece of bayat used in the maqam ‘araybun ‘arab.
- ibtihāl: religious song form.
- ibtikār: see hijaz kar kurd
- ihtizāz (pl. ihtizazat):
- inshād: mystical singing.
- intiqāla
- iqāʻ: rhythm
- ʻirāq: a piece of segah used in the maqam hadidi.
- irtijāl: spontaneous improvisation




- jadid: new.
- jahārgāh: see chahārgāh.
- jalsa: cadential passage, both vocal and instrumental, progressively descending back to the tonic note, usually preceding a meyana and signaling the end of the first part of a maqam.
- jammāl: uses the huzam scale on E semi-flat but the emphasis is on the hijaz tetrachord on G.
- janāzi:
- jaṣṣāṣ: ‘iraq on b semi-flat.
- jawāb: octave note.
- jawq: small ensemble; band.
- jawza: see joza.
- jins (pl. ajnās): a sequence of intervals usually a tetrachord, but trichords and pentachords are also used. A maqam consists of an upper and lower jins, with the lower often giving the maqam its name and character.
- jins khumāsi: pentachord.
- jins rubāʻi: tetrachord.
- jins thulāthi: trichord.
- joza: four-stringed bowed spike-fiddle with a soundbox made from a coconut shell covered with animal skin and a body made of apricot wood with steel or gut strings.
- jubūri: bayat scale on D. It is sung to a colloquial Baghdadi mawwal, with the music accompanied by the 12/4 yugrug rhythm. Qita‘: qaryabash, mugabal, qatar, quriyat, and ‘umar gallah. This maqam is said to be of bedouin origin and is named after the Jubur tribe in western and central Iraq; also a piece of bayat used in the maqamat nawa, husaynibheirzawi and mahmudi.
- jumla: musical phrase; motif.
- jumla musiqiyya: see jumla.
- jurjina or jorjina: 10/8 or 10/16 rhythm, formerly named hileilawi, used in the maqamat hileilawi, bajilan, rashdi and bashiri and commonly used in profane and sacred songs composed during the first half of the twentieth century. This rhythm is also popular in Turkey. 


K 

- kah; short unaccented drum beat preceding or following a tek stroke.
- kamān: violin
- kamāna: see joza
- kamāna baghdādiyya: see joza
- kamanja: spike fiddle; violin; also see joza
- kānun: see qānun
- karār: Turkish for qarār
- kardan: c' string on ‘ud
- kawliyya:
- khāburiyya:
- khalili: starts with the chahargah on f' and ends with the sharqi rast on c'. Used in the maqamat rast, rashdi, and tahir.
- khalwati: chahargah on F, used in religious ceremonies and quranic cantillation during Islamic holidays. 
- khāna: section of a bashraf
- khanābāt: uses the bayat on D and nahawand on G. It is sung to classical Arabic poetry with its music accompanied by the 12/4 yugrug rhythm. Qita‘: yetimi, dasht ‘arab, and bayat.
- kharabāt: see khanābāt
- khishba:
- kuma (pl. kumat): comma.
- kurd: kurd on D and bayat on d'. It is sung to a colloquial Baghdadi mawwal without rhythmic accompaniment. Composed and popularized by Muhammad al-Qubbanchi.
- kūyān: a piece of mukhalaf on E semi-flat used in the maqam mukhalaf.
kūyāni: see kūyān




- lafḍha (pl. alfāḍh): modulating syllables used in the tahrir, qitaʻ, meyanat, or taslim of the maqamat al-ʻiraqiyya consisting of interjections or words in Iraqi-Arabic dialect, classical Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Indian, or Hebrew.
- laḥn (pl. alḥan): tune, melody.
- lāmi: lami on E. Sung to a colloquial abudhiyya or classical Arabic verses without rhythmic accompaniment. Composed by Muhammad al-Qubbanchi in 1928; also a piece of lami transposed on A used in the maqam dasht.
- lāuk: chahargah on F used in the maqam bayat, sung to the interjection "oye".
- lāzima (pl. lawazim): instrumental or vocal refrain.
- lāzima musiqiyya: instrumental refrain.
- longā: a form of Turko-Arabic instrumental music.



M 

- mabdaʼ: opening note of a
- madani: piece of rast on c'. It is the third meyana and the highest point of the maqam rast.
- madhhab:
- madih: sung eulogy to the Prophet Muhammad
- madmi: hijaz scale on D. It is sung to a colloquial Baghdadi mawwal, with the music accompanied by the 12/4 yugrug rhythm. Qita‘: sa‘idi, ‘araybun ‘ajam, and hijaz gharib. The name literally means "bloody" and according to oral tradition this melancholic maqam was composed by a Baghdad doctor during the eighteenth century to help improve the blood circulation of his patients; also a piece of hijaz used in the maqam hadidi.
- maḥmūdi: bayat scale on d'. It is sung to a colloquial Baghdadi mawwal, with the music accompanied by the 12/4 yugrug rhythm. Qita‘: juburi, segah, mugabal, muthaltha, quriyat, ‘umar galah, qaryabash, chahargah, and aydin; also a sayha starting on f' and ending on g' used in the maqamat bheirzawi, ibrahimi, hadidi, and mukhalaf.
- māhūr: rast scale.
- māhūri: chahargah scale transposed on B.
- majāl: range.
- al-majāl al-naghami: tonal range.
- makām (pl. makāmlar): Turkish spelling of maqām.
- malhā (malāhi):
- manqaba:
- al-manqaba al-nabawiyya al-sharifa:
- manṣūri: saba and bayat scales on G. It is sung to classical Arabic verses and its music is accompanied by two rhythmic formulae: the 36/4 samah until the first meyana, and the 12/4 yugrug from the meyana to the taslim. Qita‘: ‘abbush, nahuft, jalsahusayni, mathnawi, arwah, and muthaltha. Considered to be a heavy and technically demanding maqam.
- maqām (pl. maqāmāt): mode; scale; melodic type; tonal space; modal system of Arabic, Turkish and central Asian music; also the name of a cyclic genre of singing in Iraq and the modal compositions (about 60 in number) it is based on.
- al-maqām al-ʻirāqi (pl. al-maqāmāt al-ʻirāqiyya): a genre of urban music that developed in Baghdad, Kirkuk and Mosul performed in public coffeehouses and private venues during religious and secular occasions over the last four centuries
- maqāmāt al-badwa:
- maqāmāt al-fusul: maqāmāt that are part of the ancient cycles.
- maqāmāt al-taḥrir
- maqamchi:
- maschin: bayat scale on d. It is sung to a colloquial Baghdadi mawwal with its music accompanied by the 4/4 wahda rhythm. Qita‘: mahmudi, ‘ajam, and juburi; also a piece of rast on F used in the maqamat nawa and bheirzāwi.
- mathlath: third string on the ‘ud
- mathnā: second string on the ‘ud.
- mathnawi: hijaz scale on G. It is sung to classical Arabic of Persian poetry without rhythmic accompaniment; also a piece of hijaz on G used in the maqamat rast and mansuri.
- mawʻah: a piece of ‘ajam on B-flat used in the maqam nawa.
- al-mawlid al-nabawi al-sharif:
- mawlid: religious ceremony celebrating the Prophet's birthday, often accompanied by sacred vocal forms of the maqamat al-‘iraqiyya, madih, and abudhiyya.
- mawlūd: see mawlid.
- mawwāl: a form of free style singing.
- mawwāl baghdādi: see zuhayri.
- māyeh: mode.
- maykhāneh:
- mazhar: see mizhar.
- maziqa:
- maziqat al-saray: military band music.
- meyāna: highest point of a maqam performance sung in the upper register (an octave higher than the tonic) usually at the middle or closer to the end of the maqam. It often follows a jalsa.
- mizān: measure; also see wazn
- mizhar: large fram drum (about 60 cm in diameter) with copper rings, used in ritual maqam al-‘iraqi performances. It is the only instrument allowed in a mosque.
- mizmār: clarinet.
- mthaltha: a rhythmic piece of three parts (bayat on d' and G and hijaz on G) used in the maqam mansuri; also a bayat piece on D usually sung to the interjection "ah", used in different maqamat.
- muʼadhdhin: person who calls for prayer from a mosque.
- mugābal: bayat scale on A. According to oral tradition, this maqam originated in Mosul (muqabal) and later became popular in Baghdad. It is sung to a colloquial Baghdadi mawwal with its music accompanied by the 12/4 yugrug rhythm. Qita‘: juburi, quriyat, qatar, bheirzawi, ‘araybun ‘ajam; also a piece of bayat used in the maqamat mahmudibheirzāwi, hadidi, and juburi.
- mughām: an urban genre of classical music in Azerbaijan and the modal system underlying it.
- mughanni: singer.
- muḥāsaba: musical dialogue between the singer and instrumentalist.
- mujawwid: reader or recitor of the Quran.
- mukhālafmukhālaf pentachord on E semi-flat. It is sung to a colloquial Baghdadi mawwal with its music accompanied by the 18/8 ay nawasi or 12/4 yugrug rhythm. Qita‘: mukhalaf kirkuk, mahmudi, kuyani, chahargah, ‘udhdhal, and gulguli; also a piece of mukhālaf used in the maqamat segah, hijaz kar
- mukhālaf kirkuk: a piece of huzam or mukhalaf used in the maqamat mukhalaf, segah, hileilawi, awj, and hijaz kar.
- mukhannath: effeminate male singer
- mullah: Muslim clergyman; religious teacher
- mullahin: composer.
- mullāya:
- munajāt: sung prayer to God.
- munshid: hymnodist.
- muqābal: see mugabal
- muqaddima: see bashraf 
- muqaddima musiqiya: see bashraf
- muqriʼ: see qariʼ
- murabbaʻ (pl. murabbaʻat): colloquial quatrain with the rhyme form a a a b and an urban form of singing in Baghdad based on it. 
- al-murabba‘ al-baghdadi (pl. al-murabbaʻat al-baghdadiyya): see murabbaʻ.
- murraddid: choir singer
- murrattil: see qariʼ
- murshid:
- mūsiqā: music
- al-mūsiqā al-sharqiyya: Oriental music
- mūsiqār: musician
- mūsiqi: musical 
- mustaʻār:
- muthalath: 8/8 rhythm
- muthalatha: see mthaltha
- muṭrib: singer
- muwashshaḥ (pl. muwashshahat): a medieval form of classical Arabic poetry that originated in al-Andalus; a song form in Arabo-Ottoman music; a religious song form in classical or dialectical Arabic used to conclude a ritual maqam al-‘iraqi performance; also see tawshih, and tanzila



N 

- nafir: medieval trumpet.
- nagham (pl. anghām, naghamāt): melody type; mode.
- naghma: see nagham.
- nahāwand: nahawand scale on C. It is sung to classical Arabic poetry or a colloquial Baghdadi mawwal without rhythmic accompaniment. Qita‘: bayat, nawa, and ‘ajam ‘ushayran. Composed and popularized by Muhammad al-Qubbanchi.
- nāhuft: a piece of rast on F used in the maqamat mansuri and bayat.
naqqāra: double-headed kettle drum which varies in size and shape, used as an optional additional instrument in a chalghi al-baghdadi ensemble.
- naqra: beat.
- nāribayat scale on D but the qafla uses the segah on E semi-flat. The finalis is on D. It is sung to a colloquial Baghdadi mawwal, with the music accompanied by the 18/8 ay nawasi rhythm. Qita‘: mukhalaf, bayat, and muthaltha. This maqam originated in Mosul and became popular in Baghdad during the nineteenth century. It is the second maqam of the Bayat fasl.
- nawā: nawa scale on G. It is sung to classical Arabic poetry with its music accompanied by the 36/4 samah and 12/4 yugrug rhythms. Qita‘: ‘ushaysh, ‘ajam, bayatmaw‘ah, husayni, juburi, and maschin.
- nawrūz ʻajam: sung to classical Arabic or Persian verses with its music accompanied by the 12/4 yugrug rhythm. 
- nāy: end-blown reed flute with seven holes.
- nāyil:
- nim: slightly lowered pitch.
- nim bashiri: see bashiri.
- ney: see nay
- noṭa: musical notation.
- nuzha: medieval zither.




- panjigāh: rast on F and hijaz on c'. It is sung to classical Arabic poetry without any rhythmic accompaniment.
- perde (pl. perdāt): tone; pitch.
- peshrev: a Turkish compositional form.
- pestachi:
- peste: a light folk song in colloquial dialect performed by the instrumentalists and audience following a maqam, the lyrics often alluding to popular events, mysterious lovers, daring subjects and vocabulary. This was originally a song for women, and some were profane renditions of sacred melodies incorporated into maqam performances to allow the singer to rest his voice before singing the next maqam




- qadim: old
- qādirbayjān:
- qafla (pl. qaflāt): cadential pattern ending a musical phrase.
- qānūn: right-trapezoidal box zither played by plucking the strings with finger plectrums
- qaraqoz: clown
- qarār: lower octave; tonic note; low note; lowest note of a maqam performance, not necessarily the tonic note
- qāriʼ maqām (pl. qurrāʼ maqām): maqam vocalist
- qāriʼ (pl. qurrāʼ): reader or recitor of the Quran
- qaryabāsh: bayat on g; also a piece of bayat used in the maqamat ibrahimibheirzāwi, mahmudi, hadidi, and juburi.
- qaṣida: poem in classical Arabic.
- qaṭarhijaz scale on A. It is sung to a colloquial Baghdadi mawwal with no rhythmic accompaniment. Qita‘: ‘araybun ‘ajam, muthaltha, and hamayun. Composed and popularized as an Iraqi maqam by Muhammad al-Qubbanchi during the third decade of the twentieth century; also a piece of hijaz used in the maqamat ibrahimibheirzāwi, juburi, ‘araybun ‘arab, and sharqi rast
- qātūli:
- qazzāz: bayat scale. It is sung to a colloquial Baghdadi mawwal or classical Arabic verses without rhythmic accompaniment; also a piece of bayat on d' used in the maqam hijaz diwan.
- qiṭʻa (pl. qiṭaʻ): a pre-composed vocal piece that constitutes the building block of the maqam. It can be of the same mode of the main maqam or different, and serves as a modulation
- qithāra: harp
- qūriyāt: a form of Turkmen poetry in Kirkuk and an urban style of singing based on it; sung to Turkmen or classical Arabic verses with its music accompanied by the 12/4 yugrug rhythm. also a piece of bayat used in the maqamat bheirzāwi, mugabal, mahmudi, and juburi.



R

- rabāba: Bedouin bowed spike-fiddle
- rādūd (pl. raddada): chorus singers
- raml tūti:
- raqṣ: dancing
- raqṣa: dance
- rashdi: chahargah on F and rast on C.  It is sung to a colloquial Baghdadi mawwal, with the music accompanied by the 10/16 jurjina rhythm. Qita‘: aydin, khalili, sharqi rast, and saba.
- rast: rast scale on C. It is sung to classical Arabic poetry without rhythmic accompaniment except during instrumental interludes following the first and third meyana where the 4/4 wahda and 6/4 vals rhythms are used respectively. These are intended to give the singer a brief moment to rest before the next meyana.The range of the singer's voice is from the lower a (‘ushayran) to c'' (jawab kardan)
- riqq: see daff zinjari
- risha: plectrum, made from an eagle feather or plastic, used to pluck the strings of an ‘ud or qanun
- rukbāni: Bedouin form of poetry and singing;
- rukbāniyya (pl. rukbāniyyāt): 



S 

- ṣabā: saba scale on D. It is sung to classical Arabic verses with no rhythmic accompaniment except during a brief interlude (dūlāb) before the meyana where the 4/4 wahda rhythm is used. Qita‘: mahmudi, ‘abbush, awshar, and chahargah; also a piece of saba used in the maqamat chahargah, tahir, hijaz diwanrashdi, and ‘ajam ‘ushayran.
- ṣabā zamzama:
ṣafga: handclap.
- sa‘idi: a piece of bayat used in the maqamat ‘araybun ‘ajam, ‘araybun ‘arab, and hweizawi.
sa‘idi mubarqa‘: bayat scale. Sung to classical Arabic verses with its music accompanied by the 12/4 yugrug rhythm.
- salmak:
- ṣalṭanah: see ṭarab.
- samāʻ: listening.
- samah: 36/4 rhythm.
- samāʻi: Turkish compositional form consisting of several melodic segments (each called khanah); also the instrumental prelude to a waslah.

- sama'i darij:
- sanṭūr: trapezoidal zither or hammered dulcimer of Baghdad with 23 to 28 moveable bridges (dāmāt), arranged in three rows, over which 92 strings are stretched (four strings tuned to the same pitch for each bridge). The soundbox is made of apricot or walnut wood with metal tuning pegs and pins. The instrument has a range of three octaves (from G to g"). The strings, made of bronze or steel, are struck with two ivory or wooden mallets with the tips often wrapped in felt, cotton or silk.
- ṣawt (pl. aswat): sound.
- ṣayḥa (pl. sayhat): cry.
- sayr: process of the melody.
- saysāni: a piece of rast used in the maqam hileilawi.
- sayyid (pl. sādah): master; a descendant of the Prophet.
- segāh: segah and huzam scales on E semi-flat. It is sung to classical Arabic poetry with its music accompanied by the 36/4 samah and 12/4 yugrug rhythms. Qita‘: jassas, mansuribastanagar, jalsa,  balaban, sufyan, muthaltha, hakimi, mukhalaf kirkuk, sunbula, mukhalaf, tiflis, and jammal.
- segāh ʻajam:
- segah a‘raj: see mukhalaf.
- segāh balabān: rast on c' and segah on e' semi-flat.
- segāh baladi:
- segāh ḥalab:
- sengin sama‘i: 6/4 rhythm
- seyir: Turkish for sayr.
- sha‘ar
- shadd: transposition.
- shadd ʻarabān: hijaz scale transposed on the lower g (yekah).
- shahnāz: hijaz scale on c'#; also a piece of hijaz on d' used in maqam hijaz diwan.
- shāhrūd: large medieval harp.
- shaghālla:
- sharqi:
- sharqi dūkāh: bayat scale on D or G. It is sung to a colloquial Baghdadi mawwal, with the music accompanied by the 4/4 wahda rhythm. Qita‘: urfa, arwah, ‘ushaysh, and zaza.
- sharqi isfahān: sharqi rast transposed on D.
- sharqi nawa: name for sharqi dūkāh used in Mosul because it is often transposed on G.
- sharqi rast: rast scale on C. It is sung to a colloquial Baghdadi mawwal, with the music accompanied by the 4/4 wahda rhythm. Qita‘: qatar, maschin, and panjigah.
- shashmakom: an urban genre of classical music in the Uzbek-Tajik tradition.
- shashmaqam: see shashmakom.
- shiʻr: poetry.
- shiʻr fasih: classical Arabic poetry.
- shiʻr shaʻbi: folk poetry.
- shuʻba (pl. shuʻab): subsidiary mode.
- shughl (pl. ashghāl): 
- si reng:
- sufyan:
- sullam (pl. salālim): scale
- sunbula:
- swehli: form of folk singing from northern Iraq around Mosul. 



T 

- ṭabaqa (pl. ṭabaqāt): pitch; tone level
- tabl (pl. tubul): 
- ṭabla: goblet drum; also see dunbuk 
- taghyir: change; modulation
- ṭāhir: chahargah scale on G.  It is sung to classical Arabic poetry, with the music accompanied by the 18/8 ay nawasi or 12/4 yurug rhythm. Qita‘: aydin, mahmudi, juburi, khalili, sharqi rast, chahargah, husayni, and nawa; also a piece of chahargah used in the maqam chahargah.
- taḥmila: instrumental piece
- tahlila: religious vocal genre used in Sufi rituals with an independent cyclic arrangement (fusul) of maqamat al-‘iraqiyya
- taḥrir: opening vocal passage of a maqam presenting its melody formula, tonal range and establishing the maqam's character; also a vocal technique in Persian avaz singing
- taḥwil
- tajdid: innovation
- tajwid: reading of the Quran
- takhmis: a form of poetry composition 
- takht: small instrumental ensemble
- al-takht al-sharqi: near-eastern ensemble consisting of the qanun, kaman, ʻud, ney, riqq, and sometimes a cello. Its popularity in maqam concerts increased during the first half of the twentieth century in place of the traditional chalghi ensemble.
- al-takht al-baghdādi: mixed ensemble of takht and chālghi instrumentalists. 
- taksim: Turkish spelling of taqsim
- talḥin: composition
- talwin: modulation
- tamjid: glorification of God from mosque minarets often performed in the past by a qariʼ maqam.
- tanāwub: alternation
- ṭanin: whole tone
- tanzila: religious song used in sacred performances of the maqam al-‘iraqi, compared to the peste in profane performances.
- taqsim (pl. taqāsim): solo instrumental improvisation in a given mode with a free rhythmic-temporal organization
- tār: tambourine.
- ṭarab: musical ecstasy
- tarkib: composition
- tartil: reading of the Quran
- taslim: conclusion of a maqam al-‘iraqi performance by a descending melodic passage to the tonic or finalis (if different from tonic); also an instrumental refrain separating different khanat of a a bashraf or samaʻi composition.
- taslūm: see taslim
- taṣwir: transposition
- taṭwir: development
- tawr: cycle; mode in Bedouin music; also meaning mode in rural music of southern Iraq.
- tawshiḥ (pl. tawashiḥ): religious song form used in sacred performances of the maqam al-‘iraqi
- taʻziya: religious ceremony commemorating the martyrdom of Imam Husayn practiced by the Muslim Shi‘a sect in Iraq often involving religious chants and singing.
- tek: slightly raised pitch; also high-pitched drum beat struck on the periphery of the drumskin.
- tiflis: huzam scale on E semi-flat with its music accompanied by the 12/4 yugrug rhythm. It was originally sung to Turkish verses written by the maqam singer Rahmatallah Shiltagh during the first half of the nineteenth century, and many of his students continued performing it in his tradition. It is now also sung in classical Arabic poetry
- turāth:
- turāth shaʻbi:



U
 
- ubūdhiyya: see abūdhiyya
- ʻūd: short-necked lute with 5 or 6 double strings tuned
- ʻudhdhāl: a piece of mukhalaf on E semi-flat used in the maqam mukhalaf.
- ughniya: song
- ʻumar galah: a piece of bayat used in the maqamat ibrahimi, mahmudibheirzāwi, hadidi, and juburi.
- urfa: bayat scale on d'. It is sung to classical Arabic poetry with its music accompanied by the 2/4 wahda rhythm. Qita‘: arwah, ‘ushaysh, husayni, dasht, juburi, and zaza.
- ʻushaysh: piece of bayat used in the maqamat urfa, arwah, and sharqi dukah.
- ʻushshāq 



W 


- wahda al-kabira: 4/4 rhythm
- wahda al-maqsuma: 2/4 rhythm
- wahda al-saghira: rhythm
- waṣla (pl. awṣāl): a shorter realization of a qitʻa; brief modulation
- watar (pl. awtār): string
- wazn (pl. awzān): measure; rhythm 




Y

- yatimi: a piece of nahawand used in the maqam nahawand.
yugrug: 12/4 rhythm used in some maqams and pestes




Z 

- zaffa: wedding proce
zajal: colloquial form of poetry.
- zanbūri: a piece of bayat used in the maqam ibrahimi.
- zanjarān: chahargah on F and hijaz on c'.
- zenga: see tahir.
- zingula: see zanjarān.
- zir: falsetto singing; also the highest string on the ‘ud.
- zirgula: see zanjarān.
- zuhayri: seven-line poem in colloquial dialect with the rhyme form a a a b b b a used in certain maqamat 
- zummāra: see zurna
- zūrkhāna: (lit. "house of strength" in Persian) old gymnasium and wrestling ring of Baghdad where the maqam al-‘iraqi was performed. 
- zurna: woodwind instrumentl; oboe.



*

Arabic names for musical notes used in Iraq: 

G sol yekah
A la ‘ushayran
Bb si bémol ‘ajam ‘ushayran
Bb si kar-bémol ‘iraq
B si kawasht
C do rast
C# or Db do dièse or re bémol zirgula
Db re kar-bémol tek zirgula
D re dugah
Eb mi bémol kurd
Eb mi kar-bémol segah
E mi busalik
F fa chahargah
F// fa kar-dièse nim hijaz
F# or gb fa dièse or sol bémol hijaz
g sol nawa
ab la bémol hisar
ab la kar-bémol tek hisar
a la husayni
bb si bémol ‘ajam
bb si kar-bémol awj
b si mahur
c do kardan or jawab rast
c# or db            do dièse or re bémol               shahnaz
db re kar-bémol tek shahnaz
d re muhayyar or jawab dugah
eb mi bémol sunbula or jawab kurd
eb mi kar-bémol buzurk or jawab segah
e mi jawab busalik
f fa mahuran or jawab chahargah
f# or gʼb      fa dièse or sol bémol jawab hijaz
gʼ                                   sol   sahm or ramal tuti or jawab nawa