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Friday, April 3, 2009

The Repertoire of the Iraqi Maqam

The Traditional Five Fusul (Suites) of the Iraqi Maqam1:

The Bayat fasl and its maqamat:
- Bayat
- Nari
- Taher
- Mahmudi
- Segah
- Mukhalaf2
- Hileilawi3
- Bajilan
The Husayni fasl and its maqamat:
- Husayni
- Dasht ‘Ajam (or Dasht ‘Arab)
- Urfa
- Arwah (Rahat al-Arwah)
- Bayat ‘Ajam
- ‘Ali Zubar (‘Arazbar)
The Hijaz fasl and its maqamat:
- Hijaz Diwan
- Quriyat
- ‘Araybun ‘Ajam
- ‘Araybun ‘Arab
- Ibrahimi
- Hadidi
The Rast fasl and its maqamat:
- Rast
- Mansuri
- Hijaz Shaytani
- Juburi
- Khanabat
- Sharqi Rast (Sharqi Isfahan)
The Nawa fasl and its maqamat:
- Nawa
- Maschin
- Saba
- Qaryabash


These are the suites as performed and documented during the nineteenth century4 but many of the original maqamat within the fusul were replaced with others later on. During the last few decades, very few Iraqi maqam performers continued to follow the traditional five-suite cycle but instead opted to freely choose the ones they were able to perform.

Other independent and derivative maqams in the Iraqi repertoire that are not performed within the traditional suites:
- 'Ajam 'Ushayran
- Kurd
- Lami5
- Nahawand
- Chahargah
- Rashdi
- Panjigah
- Awj
- Hakimi
- Huwaizawi
- Bheirzawi
- Mugabal
- Sharqi Dukah (Sharqi ‘Ushaq)
- ‘Ushaq
- Madmi
- Qatar6
- Awshar
- Mathnawi
- Bashiri (Nim Bashiri)
- Hijaz Gharib
- Hijaz Kar7
- Hijaz Kar Kurd (Ibtikar)
- Hijaz Atchugh
- Hamayun (Hijaz Hamayun)
- Khalwati
- Haftgah
- Dasht ‘Arab (Dasht ‘Iraq)8
- Qazzaz
- Gulguli
- Tiflis9
- Jammal
- Segah Balaban
- Sa‘idi
- Sa‘idi Mubarqa‘
- Bakhtiyar
- Nawruz ‘Ajam


A few maqams have been lost and survive only in name such as: Nahuft al-‘Arab, Hayran, Zamzami, Abu ‘Ata, Salmak, Shushtari, Zirafkand, Ramal, ‘Akbari, Najdi Segah, Mawara'al-nahr, Ma‘rana and Qajar.

The Qita‘ and awsal (modulating pieces and short compositions) used in the Iraqi maqam10:
- Mukhalaf Kirkuk
- Mukhalaf
- Gulguli
- Koyani
- Yetimi
- Nahawand
- Musta‘ar
- Negriz
- ‘Iraq
- ‘Ushaq
- Qatuli
- Omar Galah
- Sei Reng
- ‘Ali Zubar
- Saba
- Mansuri
- Segah
- Segah Balaban
- Hakimi
- Awj
- Ibrahimi
- Khalili
- Sa‘idi
- Zanburi
- Sharqi Dukah
- Nari
- Qaryabash
- Quriyat
- Chahargah
- ‘Ajam
- Mahuri
- Busilik
- Lami
- Aydin
- Hijaz Diwan
- Hijaz Gharib
- Hijaz Shaytani
- Huwaizawi
- ‘Araybun ‘Ajam
- Qatar
- Madmi
- Madani
- Mathnawi
- Maschin
- Husayni
- Arwah
- Urfa
- Dasht
- Dasht ‘Arab
- ‘Abbush
- Qazzaz
- Bastanegar
- Bakhtiyar
- Qadirbayjan
- Jassas
- Rast Hindi
- Sharqi Rast
- Segah 'Ajam
- Segah Halab
- Sufyan
- Sunbula
- Tiflis
- Jammal
- ‘Udhal
- Nahuft
- Nahuft al-‘Arab
- Lauk
- Rukbani
- Shahnaz
- Saysani
- Mow‘a
- ‘Ushaysh
- Zaza
- Zanjaran
- Khaburi
- Janazi
- Bayat
- Juburi
- Mugabal
- Mugatta‘
- Muthagal
- Muthaltha
- Jalsa
- Mahmudi
- Salmak
- Dawran
- Bayat Shuri
- Bahrani
- Mithawi


Musical Classification:

The maqams are classified musically into primary (or basic) and secondary (or derivative) modes11. In the Iraqi Maqam repertoire, the modal classification is generally agreed to be as follows12:

(C) indicates maqams performed with Classical Arabic poetry, while (F) denotes maqams performed with folk verses or Baghdadi mawwals.
- Bayat (C): Ibrahimi (F), Juburi (F), Mahmudi (F), Mugabal (F), Bheirzawi (F), Nari (F), Maschin (F), Sharqi Dukah (F), ‘Araybun ‘Arab (F).
- Rast (C): Sharqi Rast (F), Panjigah (C).
- Chahargah (C): Taher (C), Rashdi (F), Bashiri (C).
- Ajam ‘Ushayran (C)
- Hijaz Diwan: Hijaz Shaytani (C), Hijaz Atchugh (C), Hijaz Gharib (C), Huwaizawi (C), Hamayun (C), ‘Araybun ‘Ajam (C), Hijaz Kar (F), Madmi (F), Qatar (F), Bakhtiyar (C).
- Saba (C): Mansuri (C), Hadidi (F).
- Husayni (C): Arwah (C), Urfa (C), Dasht ‘Ajam (C), Dasht ‘Arab (C).
- Segah(C/F): Awj (C), Awshar (C), Hakimi (F), Jammal (C), Tiflis (C), Balaban (C).
- Nahawand (C/F): Khanabat (C), Nawa (C).
- Mukhalaf(F): Gulguli (F).
- Kurd (F): Hijaz Kar Kurd (F).
- Hileilawi (F): Bajilan (F).

For practical purposes, there are considered to be seven principal modes in the Iraqi Maqam13, namely: Rast, Bayat, Segah, Hijaz Diwan, Saba, ‘Ajam ‘Ushayran, and Husayni. The other circa sixty Iraqi maqamat and eighty qita‘ (modal pieces) listed above are theoretically considered to be derived from these seven principal modes, although many other modes which are also found in the music of nearby regions are used in these maqamat and pieces.

-------------------

1 - Bilal, Abdul Wahhab, "al-Maqamat al-‘Iraqiyya". ‘Alam al-Fikr 6: 33-102;
- al-Hanafi, Jalal. al-Maqam al-‘Iraqi wa A‘lam al-Ghina‘ al-Baghdadi, "The Iraqi Maqam and Notable Baghdadi Singers". 2nd ed. Beirut, 2000;
- Touma, Habib Hassan. The Music of the Arabs. Amadeus Press, 1996;
- al-Wardi, Hammudi. al-Ghina‘ al-‘Iraqi, "Iraqi Singing". Baghdad, 1964.
2 - An ancient pentachordal maqam of unknown origin mentioned in medieval musical treatises. It is exclusive to Baghdad (with variations in Kirkuk and Mosul). A gushe in the Iranian radif is similar in name but has different modal intervals.
3 - An old maqam composed by an unknown singer.
4 - According to Iraqi musicologist Abdul Wahhab Bilal, there was a sixth Segah suite that included the maqams Segah, Segah Balaban, Segah Halab, Tiflis, and Jammal.
5 - Composed by the maqam singer Muhammad al-Qubbanchi.
6 - Qubbanchi expanded it into a full maqam.
7 - Introduced to the Iraqi maqam from Ottoman Turkish music by Mulla ‘Uthman al-Mawsili (Musullu Hafız Şaşı Osman Efendi).
8 - Composed by the maqam singer Ahmed Zaydan al-Bayyati.
9 - Composed by the legendary maqam singer Rahmat Allah Sultan Khalil Shiltagh.
10 - al-A‘dhami, Sha‘ubi Ibrahim Khalil. Dalil al-Angham li-Tullab il Maqam, "The Guide to Modes for Maqam Students". Baghdad, Iraq, 1982;
- Bilal. "al-Maqamat";
- Hanafi. al-Maqam al-'Iraqi.
11 - Ibid.
12 - Sheikh Jalal al-Hanafi mentions that the main maqam performers of Baghdad in the early twentieth century agreed that there were only twelve maqams and twenty four derivatives in addition to a few composite maqams, but when he asked them what the twelve maqams were they gave him different answers.
13 - A‘dhami. Dalil al-Angham;
- Bilal. "al-Maqamat";
- Hanafi. al-Maqam al-'Iraqi.

1 comment:

  1. Dear all,
    I am a student at Urbino University and will be graduating in November. I would like to write my thesis on the Iraqi Maqam and its poetic content. However I am finding it very difficult to find information about the poets and the poetry of the Maqam. The only mention of it is in an article by Farida abu-Haidar. Can anyone suggest a book or more articles? Any suggestions will be very welcome! Please contact me at my email address: blackiride@hotmail.it
    Many thanks to you all.
    Best regards,
    Iris

    ReplyDelete